Archive for 2008

21
Dec

Semester 3 Exams Over

   Posted by: admin   in Announcements

WEE!! It’s over! So far this semester’s exams is the hardest. I hope I can get another 2 A’s.

So, holiday for now and will not be updating this blog until class starts in next year ;p Do visit my personal blog though, it’s updated everyday.

18
Dec

Oh Dear! I’m Sorry

   Posted by: admin   in Announcements

I accidentally clicked on the wrong button and deleted two comments. I’m really really sorry. You know who you are. One of you is a guy and another is a girl. I saw the comments but I pressed the wrong button and it got deleted. I’m really sorry.

13
Dec

3rd Semester Exam Next Week

   Posted by: admin   in Extra & Thoughts

Not been updating for a while, nothing much to update also hahahaha… Preparing for exam now. Exam will be next Saturday and Sunday. Time really flies!

Hopefully can get A’s again this time. Really not in the mood to study sigh… So many events in December, so many games awaiting me to play also ;p

What to do? It will be over soon then can enjoy a bit hahaha… See you next year.

30
Nov

Types of Abuse

   Posted by: admin   in The Child, Family and Society

This is not full notes, just extracted some for exam purpose ;p

EMOTIONAL ABUSE

    Constant attach of a child/youth by an adult that negatively affects the child/youth’s self worth.

    Boys and girls reacted to emotional abuse differently because of their upbringing. Boys are taught that crying is not masculine but displaying anger and other physical behaviours are acceptable. Girls are taught that anger is not ladylike and that showing emotion is part of being female.

    Signs of emotional abuse:
    - agression
    - stubborn
    - withdrawn
    - passive
    - easily frustrated

    Effects of emotional abuses:-
    Behavioural:
    - irritability
    - sleep disorder
    - withdrawal
    - stealing
    - self-harm

    Physical:
    - lag in physical development
    - speech problems
    - facial tics
    - self harm
    - eating disorder

    Emotional:
    - inability to control emotions
    - questioning of religious beliefs

    Types of emotional abuse:
    1. Rejecting – Putting down a child/youth’s worth or their needs
    - constant criticism
    - yelling at the child
    - verbal humiliation
    - exclude child from family activities
    - telling a child he/she is ugly

    2. Isolating – Keeping child away from family and friends
    - not allowing child to have friends
    - isolating child in closet
    - prevent child to interact with other children
    - rewarding child for withdrawing from social contact
    - insisting in excessive studying/chores

    3. Ignoring – Failing to give any response to interact with a child/youth at all
    - denying health care
    - denying dental care
    - failure to protect child
    - lack of attention to schooling
    - not accepting the child as an offspring

    4. Corrupting – Encourage a child/youth to do things that are illegal/harmful to themselves
    - reward for bullying others
    - reward for stealing
    - supplying drugs
    - teaching and promoting prostitution
    - reward for lying

    5. Exploiting – Giving responsibilities that are greater than a child/youth that age can handle, usually for making profit
    - sexual abuse
    - participate in pornography
    - child labour
    - blaming the child/youth for misbehaviour of other sibling
    - infants expected not to cry

    6. Terrorizing – Cause a child/youth to be terrfied by the constant use of threats/intimidating behaviour
    - extreme verbal threats
    - yelling and screaming
    - threatening abandonment
    - inconsistant demand on the child
    - changing the “rule of the game”

PHYSICAL ABUSE

    Physical force or action that results in or may result in a non-accidental injury of a child.

    Difference of abuse and discipline:-
    Abuse:
    - Demonstrate anger and hostility
    - Make child listen
    - Involves humiliation
    - Teach child that decisions are at the whim of the caregiver
    - Caregiver has all the power, no respect given to the child
    - Requires submission

    Discipline:
    - Demonstrate love and affection
    - Teach child right from wrong
    - Does not involve humiliation
    - Teach child to make healthy choices and prepare for eventual independence
    - Power balance and mutual respect
    - Does not require submission

    Signs of physical abuse:
    1. Bruising – Most common abuse injuries, must take into account location, size, colour, and frequency usually found on forehead, knees, legs, arms, hands, shins etc.

    2. Beatings – Pattern of bruising/abrasions will resemble the shape of the object/body part used such as belt, bottles, bats, sticks etc.

    3. Burning – Third most frequent cause of death in children. Can be chemical, heat, electrical etc. Skin might have rashes, bleeding, pussing, blistering etc.

    4. Choking and hanging – Bruise around the front and back of the neck resemble the fingers and thumb of the attacker doing the choking. Can also have bruising that take the shape of red band known as rope burn.

    5. Smothering and drowning – Smothering compromises the child’s breathing, no other noticeabke abuse evidence. Can have bruising around the face(nose and eyes), and upper chest area. Drowning may have finger bruiseing at the back or side of the neck or shoulders where the child is hold under water with force.

    6. Poisoning – Hard to determined as it depends on the quantity can be drugs, dish liquid, gas etc. May suffer from vomitting, nausea, abdominal cramping, diarrhoe, lethargy etc. There might be rashes, redness, bleeding around the mouth.

    7. Hair-pulling – Thining hair and bald patches on the scalp. Experience headaches and neck pain.

    8. Pushed from height – Brusing and broken bones are the common abuse injuries.

    9. Shaken Baby Syndrom – Most common infant immortality and account for most long-term disability in infant and young children due to physical child abuse. Frequently a single event and there may be no visible injury. Mostly trigger by inconsolable crying and feeding problem. Can cause lethargy, tremors, vomiting, coma, death and etc.

    Effects of physical abuse:
    - behavioural problems
    - negative peer relation
    - depression
    - violence to others
    - developmental delay

SEXUAL ABUSE

    When a child/youth/adult uses a child/youth for his/her sexual gratification. This includes incest.

    There are two types of sexual abuse:-
    Non-contact:
    - No touching
    - Force to watch porn
    - Force to listen to sex talk
    - Force to look at others sexual parts

    Contact:
    - Touched/Fondled the own genitals
    - Force to touch others genitals
    - Force to oral sex
    - Force intercourse

    Sign of sexual abuse:-
    Physical signs:
    - Constipation
    - Urine in blood
    - Pain/discomfort during urination
    - Difficulty in bowel/bladder control
    - Pain/itching at genitals

    Behavioural signs:
    - Sexualized behaviour that is inappropriate in child’s age
    - Promiscious behaviour
    - Share same signs as emotional abuse

    Sexual abuse effects:-
    Emotional & physical:
    - Losses self-esteem
    - Losses trust
    - Losses intimacy
    - Losses childhood
    - Losses control of his/her body

    Behavioural:
    - Nightmares
    - Phobia
    - Learning problem
    - Insecurity
    - Relationship problems

    Factors that affect the effects:
    - Relationship of the victim and the offender
    - The age of the child
    - Type of sexual activities exposed to
    - The degree of physical aggression
    - The respond receives when the victim disclose the abuse
    - The availability of supportive person

    Why children don’t tell?
    - Fear of revenge
    - No one will believe
    - Openly threat the safety of the people related to the child/youth
    - Fear of abandonment especially if offender is family member
    - Promise with gifts/rewards/offer bribes

28
Nov

Almost the End…

   Posted by: admin   in Extra & Thoughts

WOW! Time sure flies! It’s almost the end of the term. Assignment due soon, not long later will have exam. After that will have 2 long weeks of holidays! YAY!

Must start to prepare notes for exam, it’s going to be a lot! It won’t be as easy as it used to be as the lecturers need to prepare two papers and means we have to learn more. Sigh…

There are many types of equipments and props for children to use for movement activities.

Example of equpiments:
Slide, see saw, swing, climber, balancing beam, platform, sand pit, tire(tyre)

Example of props:
Tunnel, rhythm stick, parachute, scarve, beanbag, shaker, skipping rope, ball, mat, hoop, streamer

Physical education can be integrated in other subjects. Example:

    Language art:
    They can learn about “front”, “back”, “up”, “down”, “stand”, “sit”, “crawl”, “creep”, “forward”, “backward” etc using the props or equipments.

    Art:
    They can explore colours, shape, line, texture when drawing, colouring, cutting etc. Movements are involved indirectly such as fine and gross motorskill.

    Mathematics
    They can learn about the concept of size, stacking, sorting, matching, numbers, geometry and computation.

    Science
    They can explore, navigate, solve problem, and discovery with their body such as senses, nutrition, hygience, gravity etc.

Advantages of integrating other subjects with physical activities are:

  • Children will be readily attend to the learning task
  • Children can deal with reality
  • Result oriented, easy to monitor the ability and the understanding of the children
  • Enhance their senses
  • Provide them with incentive, when they are successful in doing certain movement, they will feel the satisfaction even though no material things are given
  • Encourage positive attitudes

Intelligence is the ability to manipulate surrounding to a person’s advantage.

Inter/Intrapersonal/Spatial/Social
Good in interacting with people and easy to make friends.
Positive effect: Can be a good sales person, councellor, social worker
Negative effect: Easily influcences people to do bad things, proud, manipulate people feelings, commit crimes

Kinesthetic
Have high level of energy, good physical activities as dancing, running, swimming…
Positive effect: Be sportsmen representing country in sporting events, encourage healthy and active lifestyle
Negative effect: Harm people who are weaker than them

Musical
Good in playing musical instruments, composing songs and etc.
Positive effect: Provide entertainment
Negative effect: Sound pollution, fan obsessions

Numerical
Good sense of numbers
Positive effect: Earn money, improve economy
Negative effect: Corruptions, obssession with money

Linguistic
Good in language art
Positive effect: Share knowledge
Negative effect: Provide misleading information

Natural
Love nature.
Positive effect: Protect the ecosystem
Negative effect: Disrupt ecosystem

18
Nov

Types of Learners

   Posted by: admin   in The Child, Family and Society

Try to ask a person a question that he/she can’t give you an immediate answer and take note of their eye movements.

If a person looks up: Active Learner
They must get involve in things they learn, must have hands on activities.

If a person looks down: Visual Learner
Attractive props for learning can be prepared, there must be step by step instructions, differences must be made clear, reading materials must be available.

If a person looks sideway: Audible Learner
There should not be interruption, must hear the right information, do not confused them. Usually has low self-esteem.

17
Nov

Children Must Be Developed…

   Posted by: admin   in The Child, Family and Society

Physically
Sample activities: action songs, finger play, pantomime, games, exercise, bicycling, swimming, throw & catch.

Emotional/Psychological
Sample activities: role playing, dance, sand/water play. drawing, singing

Creative
Sample activities: arts/crafts, music/movement, pantomime/drama

Social
Sample activities: pantomime, playing in group, passing message

Intellectual
Sample activities: reading, sorting/matching/comparing, puzzles, blocks

Spiritual(believeing something that is bigger than them exist)
Sample activities: moral, religion

Children with special needs

  • Movement can improve a special child’s self concept.
  • Help the child discover each body parts and fit the whole schema of a human body. Indirectly will help define his/her image.
  • Improve confidence and realised that he/she is part of a group, he/she is not alone.
  • Not easy for them to follow imposed rhythm.
  • Doing activities that involves parents and therapists will have better effect.
  • Activities such as blinking eyes, twitching the fingers

Children with Physical Challenge

  • With physical disabilities such as spine bifida, celebral palsy, arthritis, deformed body parts
  • Mobility is restricted
  • Sample activities such as movement of arm and shoulder, move the neck

Children with Hearing Impairments

  • Problem with semicircular canals
  • Good in visual and kinesthetic skills
  • Normally have balancing problem, refrain from balancing activities
  • Place the children in front when having activity
  • No background music or other distraction sounds
  • Face the children when speak
  • Speaking in low tone
  • Make effort to learn sign language otherwise use body language or facial expression
  • Activities such as place hand on record to feel the vibration, laying on the floor to feel the vibration with their body, ask the children to imitate whatever you are doing

Children with Visual Impairments

  • Totally or partially blind
  • Good auditorial and tactile skills
  • Encourage movement to alleviate fear
  • Introduce statement or feedback when doing movement such as “you are bending your arm”
  • For partially blind, use big and bright colours props and equipments
  • Activities such as “touching” activity(hold hand with other child moving from one place to another)

Children with Emotional Disabilities

  • Hyperactive, aggressive, lack of self-control, refusal to participate in activities
  • Usually lags behind physical and motor skill
  • Give praise and positive encouragements to get desired behaviour
  • Shun songs with lyrics with disturbing association e.g. Rock a Bye Baby
  • Intorduce soothing, soft music
  • Introduce balancing activities, locomotor and non-locomotor activities

Children with Learning Disabilities

  • Usually posses average or above average intelligence
  • Problem with writing and spoken language
  • Problem with motor skill, difficulty with body and spatial awareness, coordination
  • Problem in following instructions/directions
  • Shorter attention span, easily discourage
  • Like to be given attention, follow and immitate
  • Sample activities that require multi-sensory apporach(eye, body, ear, voice, music), repeat activites